首页 - 2017年1月上JOURNAL

城市高层化及高密度化发展模式对城市气候的影响研究

IMPACTS OF URBAN HIGH-RISE AND HIGH-DENSITY MODE ON URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE

周雪帆 李保峰 陈宏   Zhou Xuefan Li Baofeng Chen Hong
关键字:中尺度气象模拟模型 城市冠层模型 城市环境及气候
Mesoscale meteorological model, Urban canopy model, Urban environment and climate
摘要:城市人口增长,城市化进程加速使得城市向着更高、更密的方向发展,高层化和高密度化城市发展模式带来城市空间形态的改变的同时,还影响城市热收支平衡,改变了城市环境及微气候。本研究以统计数据为基础,预测2050年武汉市人口增长速率不变的情况下,随着建筑面积的增长带来的城市高层化及高密度化发展对城市气候的影响。为实现城市尺度的气侯模拟预测研究,本文详细介绍并采用耦合了城市冠层模型(UCM)的中尺度气象预测模拟模型(WRF),并通过对武汉市内典型路段的实地测量验证此模拟模型的精确度。在研究方法得到验证的基础上,本研究设计了高层化及高密度化两组六个案例。通过对这六个案例的模拟分析,比较探讨了应对人口增长的城市高层化及高密度化发展模式对夏季城市气温、风速等的影响程度,并进一步比较分析了这两种城市发展模式对日益增长的人工热排放的应对。最终,总结、归纳出高密度化和高层化发展模式的适用区域、优缺点及适用策略,为城市规划设计决策者提供定量化的数据依据和理论基础。
Recent years, the process of urbanization is speeding up in China. Urbanization forces cities to become compact and extensive, furthermore, to change its morphology. Hence, urbanization may affect the heat balance of urban and change urban environment and climate. In this study, we aim to evaluate the impact of urban morphology changes (high-density and high-rise cases) on urban environment and climate. To achieve the goal, mesoscale-metrological model of WRF (Weather Research & Forecasting) coupled with UCM (Urban Canopy Model) is detailed introduced and applied to this study. To clarify the accuracy of this model, validation using measurement data collected in Wuhan is given before the appliance of this model. To compare and analyze the impact of two modes of urban which are high-density and high-rise respectively on urban thermal and wind environment in summer, 2 groups of cases (6 cases in total) of Wuhan, China as an example are set. Moreover, the increasing anthropogenic heat release is added to these two modes, to discuss the climate adaptation in 2050 of Wuhan along with its development. With quantified analysis, strategies of urban planning base on environment and climate to optimize urban development will be summarized in this study.